Geographic vs. Geographical

The distinction between “geographic” and “geographical” has been discussed before, but generally to conclusions of stylistic choice or difference between British and American English. In my three years of studying linguistics, one thing I learned was that there are no true synonyms.  Where two words seem to share meaning, they will always have some sort of […]

Posted at 11:33 am on 21 January, 2010 | 9 comments | Filed Under: Global, South Africa | Tagged: , , , , , , | Continue reading

More than maps

Maps are the fundamental, primary output of geographical information systems (GIS). This is not surprising, considering that the unique characteristic of GIS is the ability to perform spatial analysis. The use of maps to display the results of spatial analysis seems to be a logical and appropriate means. It is, however, important to note that […]

Posted at 4:33 pm on 16 January, 2010 | Leave a comment | Filed Under: Essays, GIScience | Tagged: , , , | Continue reading


Essays from Joseph Spring pertaining to the field of Geographical Information Science (GIS).